IRI ENSO Forecast
IRI ENSO Forecast
September 2021 Quick Look
Published: September 20, 2021
A monthly summary of the status of El Niño, La Niña, and the Southern Oscillation, or ENSO, based on the NINO3.4 index (120-170W, 5S-5N)
In mid-September, SSTs in the east-central Pacific are -0.4 degree C different from average. The evolution of key atmospheric variables is consistent with ENSO-neutral conditions. However, a La Niña Watch remains in effect for Sep 2021. A large majority of the models predict SSTs to cool further through boreal autumn and winter, and then return to ENSO-neutral levels during late spring months. Similar to, the new official CPC/IRI outlook issued earlier this month, this objective outlook calls for La Niña to emerge during Sep-Nov and persist through winter and early spring, with return to ENSO-neutral in late spring and early summer of 2022.
Figures 1 and 3 (the official ENSO probability forecast and the objective model-based ENSO probability forecast, respectively) are often quite similar. However, occasionally they may differ noticeably. There can be several reasons for differences. One possible reason is that the human forecasters, using their experience and judgment, may disagree to some degree with the models, which may have known biases. Another reason is related to the fact that the models are not run at the same time that the forecasters make their assessment, so that the starting ENSO conditions may be slightly different between the two times. The charts on this Quick Look page are updated at two different times of the month, so that between the second and the third Thursday of the month, the official forecast (Fig. 1) has just been updated, while the model-based forecasts (Figs. 3 and 4) are still from the third Thursday of the previous month. On the other hand, from the third Thursday of the month until the second Thursday of the next month, the model-based forecasts are more recently updated, while the official forecasts remain from the second Thursday of the current month.